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by Sean M
Tue Feb 20, 2024 12:17 pm
Forum: Historical Research
Topic: Written Sources for Gambesons/Aketons/Pourpoints 1100-1350
Replies: 173
Views: 70239

Re: Written Sources for Gambesons/Aketons/Pourpoints 1100-1350

I am intimidated by the Byzantine sources because the 8th to 12th centuries were the time of the Arab Agricultural Revolution , when crops such as cotton, sorghum, and sugar cane (not to mention the silkworm) became common across West Asia, North Africa, and Al-Andalus. People in the hot dry east of...
by Sean M
Mon Feb 19, 2024 1:41 pm
Forum: Historical Research
Topic: AotEK 2 on Croissants
Replies: 0
Views: 30

AotEK 2 on Croissants

Can anyone tell me which pages of Capwell's Armour of the English Knight, volume 2 discuss the crescent-shaped plates strapped to the armpits of 15th century European armour like Japanese wakibiki? I own volumes 1 and 3 but not 2
by Sean M
Sun Feb 18, 2024 9:15 pm
Forum: Historical Research
Topic: Written Sources for Gambesons/Aketons/Pourpoints 1100-1350
Replies: 173
Views: 70239

Re: Written Sources for Gambesons/Aketons/Pourpoints 1100-1350

If you are interested in cotton clothing in the eastern Mediterranean around the twelfth century, an open-access article is: https://journals.openedition.org/ethnoecologie/4176 And there seems to be a ten-page chapter on textile archaeology in Jennifer L. Ball, Byzantine dress: representations of se...
by Sean M
Fri Feb 16, 2024 5:08 pm
Forum: Interpretive Re-creation
Topic: braies question
Replies: 331
Views: 26858

Re: braies question

"The Workwoman's Guide" from England from 1840 speaks of buying linen for shirts in different widths measured to the nail (1/16 of a yard, or 2.25") In contrast, medieval linen for shirts is often a yard or more broad. A law from Nuremberg says that linen should be either 1 or 2 Nuremberg ells wide,...
by Sean M
Wed Feb 14, 2024 4:39 pm
Forum: Historical Research
Topic: Written Sources for Gambesons/Aketons/Pourpoints 1100-1350
Replies: 173
Views: 70239

Re: Written Sources for Gambesons/Aketons/Pourpoints 1100-1350

I think that may be the oldest source in world history for soldiers wearing protective quilted garments stuffed with cotton (the older Roman manuals mention felt not cotton). But I limited this study to quilted garments made or worn by Catholic Europeans because I can only do so much. Byzantine and ...
by Sean M
Wed Feb 14, 2024 12:25 pm
Forum: Interpretive Re-creation
Topic: Late Medieval Shield Bosses
Replies: 2
Views: 4022

Re: Late Medieval Shield Bosses

When a modern object has a site in the name, you still have to research and decide whether its a good copy. Sometimes its a copy of someone else's copy, and sometimes its just made up and given a plausible-sounding name (also, there are hundreds of shield bosses from many sites, so "Birka boss" is l...
by Sean M
Sun Feb 11, 2024 12:36 pm
Forum: Historical Research
Topic: Is my armor cohesive?
Replies: 3
Views: 146

Re: Is my armor cohesive?

If you want to look 1400-ish Western European, you could get a quilted coat with a nice broad skirt out of the Grandes Chroniques de France, either the kind cut with a waist which buttons or laces up the front, or the kind pulled in with a belt which pulls on like a sweater. If it has nice baggy sle...
by Sean M
Sat Feb 10, 2024 12:02 pm
Forum: Armour - Design and Construction
Topic: Where to find a tree stump?
Replies: 7
Views: 143

Re: Where to find a tree stump?

Or call a local landscaping service and say "hi, I am getting in to metalwork and I need something to pound on. I can pay x for a section of nice hard wood tree about y high and z diameter."

Parks services also chop trees into short sections and have to get rid of them after.
by Sean M
Thu Feb 08, 2024 3:11 am
Forum: Historical Research
Topic: Written Sources for Gambesons/Aketons/Pourpoints 1100-1350
Replies: 173
Views: 70239

Re: Written Sources for Gambesons/Aketons/Pourpoints 1100-1350

Part 1 (the twelfth century) will be published in Medieval Clothing & Textiles 18 this year. I'm looking for work right now but once I stabilize my income maybe we can talk abut the Old Norse sources for part 2.

Part 1 has a lot of references forward to the Norwegian King's Mirror.
by Sean M
Thu Feb 01, 2024 7:01 pm
Forum: Historical Research
Topic: Traditional Armor Finishing Processes
Replies: 221
Views: 51876

Re: Traditional Armor Finishing Processes

Either Barbara G. or gaukler reminded me that early European recipes for quenching, such as Theophilius and "vom Stahl und Eisen" from 1532, focus on quenching in water. Sometimes they add secret ingredients or get the water from a social source (urine, blood) but the mixture is mostly water. Chris ...
by Sean M
Sun Jan 28, 2024 3:12 pm
Forum: Armour - Design and Construction
Topic: Angle through Knee Articulation
Replies: 8
Views: 439

Re: Angle through Knee Articulation

Derek Guy the men's tailoring social media person has said that good tailored wool pants are often worked with steam and an iron to help follow these curves.
by Sean M
Sat Jan 27, 2024 12:15 pm
Forum: Historical Research
Topic: Written Sources for Gambesons/Aketons/Pourpoints 1100-1350
Replies: 173
Views: 70239

Re: Written Sources for Gambesons/Aketons/Pourpoints 1100-1350

Over on MyArmoury Len Parker found a Norwegian King's Saga written after 1263 which has someone wearing a treja (quilted coat) and a byrnie (mail coat). I think Dan Howard is right that Odo Earl of Kent on the Bayeaux Tapestry wears a cote of vair over his hauberk. A team in Denmark recently reconst...
by Sean M
Wed Jan 24, 2024 11:53 am
Forum: Armour - Design and Construction
Topic: Pursuing this again
Replies: 2
Views: 219

Re: Pursuing this again

Hello to whom it may apply Some time ago I came here seeking information on how to make armour and who to learn from. I got no particularly good insight at the time, and by enlarge its just normal people who... well lets just say, wouldnt ever spare their time. Or there was someone who offered but ...
by Sean M
Sun Jan 21, 2024 11:49 pm
Forum: Armour - Design and Construction
Topic: Definition of "archer" knees/elbows?
Replies: 14
Views: 1107

Re: Definition of "archer" knees/elbows?

note the nice pictures. Knees, not elbows. I have made them and I think that it is really something people do to make things easy for the armourer. They (think) that they can get away with a lot less customization in size/shape and get away with it. For many customers it seems to work. As the pictu...
by Sean M
Thu Jan 18, 2024 4:02 pm
Forum: Historical Research
Topic: Introduction of Type XV and XVIII Blades
Replies: 1
Views: 222

Re: Introduction of Type XV and XVIII Blades

I see that Marko Aleksić has released his book on medieval swords from the Balkans on academia.edu On pages 87 and 88 he questions Oakeshott's belief that type XV was already made in the thirteenth century, on page 90 he mentions that types XV and XVIII are relatively rare in southeast Europe. In ge...
by Sean M
Wed Jan 17, 2024 3:35 pm
Forum: Historical Research
Topic: Introduction of Type XV and XVIII Blades
Replies: 1
Views: 222

Introduction of Type XV and XVIII Blades

Is there research newer than Sword in the Age of Chivalry and Records of the Medieval Sword which pins down when swords with a diamond cross-section and a strong, continuous profile taper returned to Europe? We have all kinds of resources for chronology today which Ewart Oakeshott did not have.
by Sean M
Sun Jan 07, 2024 10:02 pm
Forum: Historical Research
Topic: Traditional Armor Finishing Processes
Replies: 221
Views: 51876

Re: Traditional Armor Finishing Processes

A few years back Craig at the Oakeshott Institute did a talk on the finish of medieval sword blades. They have some photos of an Oakeshott type X or XI blade with traces of something similar to JAG's 'shiny between the scratches.' Photo quality is not up to Carlo P's standards since its YouTube. htt...
by Sean M
Sun Jan 07, 2024 1:43 pm
Forum: Armour - Design and Construction
Topic: Maximillian Fluting by Hammered Tooling
Replies: 30
Views: 7146

Re: Maximillian Fluting by Hammered Tooling

A few Western European sword blades such as Moonbrand have groups of long, narrow fullers which are straight as an arrow and seem like they might have been made by similar methods to the incised lines on armour. The fullers have more volume though. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/moonbrand-early-14t...
by Sean M
Sat Jan 06, 2024 10:57 pm
Forum: Armour - Design and Construction
Topic: Pair of plates or brigandine from Ternopil region, UA
Replies: 0
Views: 3719

Pair of plates or brigandine from Ternopil region, UA

Someone found a pair of plates or brigandine in the region of Ternopil, Galicia (since 1945 part of Ukraine). They seem to want it to be the 'snaky' style with weapon chains but I'm not 100% sure of the basis of that other than that one short length of chain was found in context. Does anyone know of...
by Sean M
Wed Jan 03, 2024 11:10 pm
Forum: Armour - Design and Construction
Topic: Arming coat for supporting armor only, no padding
Replies: 29
Views: 19375

Re: Arming coat for supporting armor only, no padding

In construction 2 (like a Sakko) you can put in the lining like this: https://www.bookandsword.com/wp-content/uploads/2023/09/bag-lining.jpg?w=800 So its only fastened to the rest of the garment at the hems (cuffs / bottom edge / neck opening). Hi Sean, after a few days of brooding over it, I gotta...
by Sean M
Mon Jan 01, 2024 9:00 pm
Forum: Armour - Design and Construction
Topic: Could swords split Greathelms?
Replies: 9
Views: 1160

Re: Could swords split Greathelms?

The ARLIMA website does not point to anything in English or German on any version of the Guiron le Courtoise poems https://www.arlima.net/ad/cycle_de_guiron_le_courtois.html Edit: there is one chapter in this book https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003255475 Composed between 1235 and 1240 after the Lancelo...
by Sean M
Mon Jan 01, 2024 3:05 pm
Forum: Armour - Design and Construction
Topic: Arming coat for supporting armor only, no padding
Replies: 29
Views: 19375

Re: Arming coat for supporting armor only, no padding

Here is a photo of my short gown which shows how finishing the vertical opening of a garment like in my diagram of the doublet in the Hans Memling painting can work. The facing is cut wide, folded wrong side to wrong side, and sewed down then the lining is put on top of it. The buttonholes go throug...
by Sean M
Wed Dec 27, 2023 12:43 pm
Forum: Interpretive Re-creation
Topic: Late Medieval Shield Bosses
Replies: 2
Views: 4022

Late Medieval Shield Bosses

Does anyone sell copies of bosses from late medieval bucklers and targets? Most online stores carry the same South Asian bosses (or Eastern European copies of the South Asian bosses). They tend to be enlarged to fit the thick padded gloves that Viking Fightin' and tournament HEMA use and the shapes ...
by Sean M
Fri Dec 22, 2023 2:52 pm
Forum: Armour - Design and Construction
Topic: Tod and Co's Arrows vs. Armour Test
Replies: 47
Views: 20780

Re: Tod and Co's Arrows vs. Armour Test

A book on Roman shields which I am reading says that Andrew Halpin cites a study where arrows with bodkin heads fly farther than arrows with equally heavy bladed heads. The article which they cite is free to download from https://deremilitari.org/articles/ Apparently David Starley published an artic...
by Sean M
Sun Dec 03, 2023 10:50 pm
Forum: Historical Research
Topic: Arbalest à Tillolles
Replies: 133
Views: 55600

Re: Arbalest à Tillolles

Ann Wroe found an inventory of the meeting-house of the City of Rodez in Languedoc from 1355 with what she translated as "20 good crossbows, one broken ..., some with a wheel-lock, and one with a reverse lock." I would guess that the wheel-lock is something like ad turnum or its Provencal equivalent...
by Sean M
Fri Dec 01, 2023 12:31 pm
Forum: Armour - Design and Construction
Topic: Oakeshott Institute Lecture on Medieval Quenching Recipes
Replies: 2
Views: 1488

Re: Oakeshott Institute Lecture on Medieval Quenching Recipes

Jess Finley of Fühlen Designs did another talk for A&A on linen armour but I don't know if they have posted the video yet. I have seen an argument that most of the quenching recipes are the same as the nonsense that fills health magazines, or sewing magazines ... the basics that work don't fill many...
by Sean M
Sun Nov 26, 2023 12:05 pm
Forum: Armour - Design and Construction
Topic: Making Very Thin Sheet Iron
Replies: 4
Views: 1589

Re: Making Very Thin Sheet Iron

There would be two ways to make thin sheet. Worked hot, with large amounts of scale being formed and reducing the overall size of sheet. Cold working with frequent annealing, with scale loss reduced. This will be dictated by quality of iron billet and its slag content and chemical composition and t...
by Sean M
Thu Nov 23, 2023 11:58 am
Forum: Armour - Design and Construction
Topic: Making Very Thin Sheet Iron
Replies: 4
Views: 1589

Re: Making Very Thin Sheet Iron

Here is the reconstruction of the Dürrnberg grave 373 shield. The article does not have many measurements and the diagram is scaled "1/4 life size" not "this much = 1 cm" but they seem to think that the spina and umbo were something like 60-70 cm long. https://www.bookandsword.com/wp-content/uploads...
by Sean M
Thu Nov 23, 2023 1:53 am
Forum: Historical Research
Topic: Felt Armour
Replies: 38
Views: 24833

Re: Felt Armour

Over on Twitter Mike Bishop or Jon Coulston has a list of the evidence for padded arming garments in ancient Roman world. https://nitter.net/EquipmentRoman/status/1720830446299214300#m - The thoracomachus in 'De Rebus Bellicis' - The subarmalis (under-armour-thing?) in the Historia Augusta, a kind o...
by Sean M
Wed Nov 22, 2023 4:59 pm
Forum: Armour - Design and Construction
Topic: Making Very Thin Sheet Iron
Replies: 4
Views: 1589

Making Very Thin Sheet Iron

A grave chamber from Austria around 400 BCE contained a shield with lots of thin iron reinforcements. It had engraved iron sheet over the wooden 'barleycorn' boss, four legs with curled 'antennae' ends, and reinforcements along the rim. It would have looked something like this (although this is from...
by Sean M
Fri Nov 17, 2023 10:50 pm
Forum: Historical Research
Topic: Traditional Armor Finishing Processes
Replies: 221
Views: 51876

Re: Traditional Armor Finishing Processes

And here are some of the documents from seventeenth-century England which talk about the surface of armour. Markham's Soldier's Accidence (1625) https://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/eebo/A06964.0001.001/1:6?rgn=div1;view=fulltext All this Armour is to be rather of Russet, Sang•ine or Blacke colour• then Whi...
by Sean M
Mon Nov 13, 2023 6:45 pm
Forum: Armour - Design and Construction
Topic: Cuisse Leathers with Studs
Replies: 2
Views: 1495

Re: Cuisse Leathers with Studs

Ooh, thanks! In my experience the leather at the top of a cuisse is plenty stiff on its own but attaching velvet to the leather would be one reason to have the little brass or bronze studs. And then they could be used on armours without the velvet just to look pretty. I would not be surprised if the...
by Sean M
Sun Nov 12, 2023 6:26 pm
Forum: Armour - Design and Construction
Topic: Cuisse Leathers with Studs
Replies: 2
Views: 1495

Cuisse Leathers with Studs

The cuisses in Schloss Ambras often have gilt grommets in the leathers at the top, especially on armours which were re-leathered recently. Its easy to see why you would want grommets in holes which will be under tension. In October, I noticed one of the cuisses with a different kind of metal fitting...
by Sean M
Sun Nov 12, 2023 6:14 pm
Forum: Historical Research
Topic: Battle between horsemen circa 1266
Replies: 3
Views: 1418

Re: Battle between horsemen circa 1266

Thanks! I wonder why that did not show up in my search from MS from France, Switzerland, Austria, or Germany dated 1251-1290? UBH Cod. Pal. germ. 389 Der Welsche Gast has a nice battle on foot https://manuscriptminiatures.com/4830/10234#image as does the Psalter of St Louis https://manuscriptminiatu...
by Sean M
Sun Nov 12, 2023 12:26 pm
Forum: Historical Research
Topic: Battle between horsemen circa 1266
Replies: 3
Views: 1418

Battle between horsemen circa 1266

Aside from the Maciejowski Bible, does anyone know of any French or German art from around 1266 which shows a large cavalry battle? Manuscript Miniatures gives me lots of battles on foot or against towns, and individual horsemen fighting, but not groups of horsemen going at each other.